STOP Early Journal Content on JSTOR, Free to Anyone in the World This article is one of nearly 500,000 scholarly works digitized and made freely available to everyone in the world by JSTOR. Known as the Early Journal Content, this set of works include research articles, news, letters, and other writings published in more than 200 of the oldest leading academic journals. The works date from the mid-seventeenth to the early twentieth centuries. We encourage people to read and share the Early Journal Content openly and to tell others that this resource exists. People may post this content online or redistribute in any way for non-commercial purposes. Read more about Early Journal Content at http://about.jstor.org/participate-jstor/individuals/early- journal-content . JSTOR is a digital library of academic journals, books, and primary source objects. JSTOR helps people discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content through a powerful research and teaching platform, and preserves this content for future generations. JSTOR is part of ITHAKA, a not-for-profit organization that also includes Ithaka S+R and Portico. For more information about JSTOR, please contact email@example.com. Ripley: The Races of Europe 325 Nomadism of the Pastoral Races. Nomadism is regarded by our author as an important factor in the development of civilization and a great part of the volume is given up to the consideration of nomadic peoples. The regions of culture form a comparatively narrow zone extending from Europe and the Sahara across southern Asia to the East, though the pre- ponderance in area of the pastoral tribes is, perhaps, recent. A great state- creating power distinguishes the nomad, whose military character enables him to bind together the easily disintegrable sedentary races. Possess- ing the will and force to rule he yet learns much from his subjects as the Romans learnt from the Greeks and the Germans from the Romans. It is on rich soil and with vigorous labor that culture advances ; thus popu- lations grow dense and that is what culture needs for its development and diffusion. Ratzel derives both Egyptian and Chinese culture, at least in their origins, from Mesopotamia, but leaves the question of Accadians and Sumerians to historical enquirers. In the detailed survey of the Cul- tured Races of Africa separate sections are assigned to Islam, the Red Sea Group of Races, Life in the Nomad Districts of Africa and Arabia, the Abyssinians, the Berbers, the Races of the Sahara, the Soudan and its Peoples, the Fulbes, Fulahs, or Fullahtahs, and the Dark Races of the Western Soudan. Theories regarding the origin and relationships of the Berbers are not offered, but an instructive comparison with the Arabs is presented. This method of treatment is again noticeable in the sec- tion upon the Mongols, Tibetans, and Turkic Races, where no specula- tions are indulged in concerning the admixture of Caucasic blood and little is said about the early migrations of these peoples. The principal centres of culture are described separately and chapters are added upon the History of Civilization in Eastern Asia ; the Family, Society, and State, chiefly in China ; and Asiatic forms of belief and systems of religion. The concluding forty pages deal with the peoples of Caucasia and the Europeans. The account of the former is very brief, that of the latter scarcely less so though for good reason. Ratzel hesitates to denote these races by the term "historical," for he consistently maintains throughout the work that all races have their task apportioned and it is only in a special sense that we can restrict the term " historical " to Euro- peans. Here " ethnology lays the pen down for history to take it up." Frank Russell. The Races of Europe ; A Sociological Study. By William Z. Rip- ley, Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Sociology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Lecturer on Anthropology at Colum- bia University. [With a supplementary volume] , A Selected Bibliography of the Anthropology and Ethnology of Europe, pub- lished by the Trustees of the Boston Public Library. (New York : D. Appleton and Co. 1899. Pp. xxxii, 624, 160.) Dr. Ripley's book meets a genuine need. For forty years past, dili- gent anthropological workers in all parts of Europe have been working o 26 Reviews of Books at local problems. Measurements and observations have been made upon hundreds of thousands of individuals representing the populations of many and widely scattered districts. These workers were so absorbed in their local problems that they overlooked or failed to grasp general problems. Their conclusions, while often valuable, frequently suffered from the failure to take a broad view. There was great confusion, amounting at times to discord or contradiction, when conclusions of different workers were compared. The data so diligently accumulated were accessible with difficulty, being scattered through government reports, scientific period- icals, and the proceedings of learned societies. The material was diffi- cult of study, as it had been gathered by different systems of examination and measurement, and had been dealt with by differing mathematical methods. The need of the hour was synthesis of these results. This work of synthesis, a difficult and somewhat thankless task, Dr. Ripley has undertaken. He attempts to bring order out of confusion, to combine and harmonize results, to present at one view the acquired facts. The importance and pressing nature of the work appears from the fact that, at about the same time, three workers have attempted it. Ripley in America, Keane in England, and Deniker in France, have just made or are making general statements regarding the Races of Europe. Keane can hardly be called an independent worker in this field ; while differing somewhat from the others he has been so much influenced by Ripley's views that he may almost be said to be an expounder of them. Deniker diverges from both and presents a completely independent and notably peculiar scheme. Our author begins with some preliminary observations. He empha- sizes the fact that language, nationality, and race are independent of each other. Loss of clearness and serious error always result from neglect of this fact. The same language may be spoken by peoples of different races and by different nations. A language, developed by a given popu- lation in a definite area, may spread beyond its original area, among, neighboring populations ; or it may shrink until it is spoken by a mere fragment of the people that gave it birth. The boundaries of a nation may be changed by the stroke of a pen or by a single battle, irrespective of the languages spoken or the races represented in the area affected. Dr. Ripley's study is founded on physical characters. Race types- are definite combinations of physical characters, which persist through generations. There are three physical characters which have been most widely studied — head form, color, and stature — and to these three our author gives particular attention. He considers the first of these of the most importance as he believes it to be the least changeable. He dis- cusses each of these fundamental characters in a distinct chapter. Gath- ering the data regarding each, not only from all parts of Europe but also from the whole world, he discusses them and then presents the facts graphically in shaded maps. Two series of maps are given, one showing the geographical distribution of head form, of color, and of stature, through the world, the other the distribution of the same characters. Ripley: The Races of Europe 327 through Europe. These maps are highly suggestive. Those of Europe present the data in a form likely to be somewhat permanent, as the inves- tigations in that continent have been extensive and careful. While likely to be somewhat changed in detail, the main facts are probably well brought out. The maps of the world are likely — with further study — to be considerably modified. Having studied these fundamental characters in detail and mapped their geographical distribution, our author proceeds to examine the com- binations of these characters which present themselves with such fre- quency and persistency as to constitute race types. Of these combina- tions, or race types, he recognizes three. The first of his types has a long head, a long face, light hair, blue eyes, a narrow aquiline nose, and tall stature. The second has a broad or round head, a broad face, light chestnut hair, hazel gray eyes, a variable nose — though rather broad and heavy — a stocky build and medium stature. The third has a long head, long face, dark brown or black hair, dark eyes, a rather broad nose, and a slender frame of medium stature. These three types have been fairly defined by preceding authors but sad confusion exists in regard to their naming. Ripley finally decides upon the names Teutonic, Alpine and Mediterranean, respectively. His Alpine type is the Celtic type of many writers. He makes an elaborate argument against the name Celtic. It seems to us that a somewhat similar argument might lie against the name Teutonic, which is certainly bad. In thus recognizing and emphasizing three types our author is on delicate ground. In emphasizing them as he does he intentionally re- fuses to recognize a single white race, of which they may be branches. Boas has already criticized this, complaining that Ripley sees differences clearly, but refuses to see similarities. To this we shall return later. Others may easily criticize Dr. Ripley for not recognizing more than three types. Pursuing the same method of isolating physical characters and then seeking for actual and well-defined combinations of them, Deni- ker recognizes ten race-types in Europe. Whether or not he is on deli- cate ground here, Ripley recognizes his three types, defines them, names them, and then traces them throughout Europe. In a series of chapters he examines the population of different Euro- pean countries in detail. The titles of these chapters indicate the treat- ment. They are : France and Belgium ; The Basques ; The Teutonic Race — Scandinavia and Germany ; The Mediterranean Race — Italy, Spain, and Africa ; The Alpine Race — Switzerland, The Tyrol and the Netherlands ; The British Islands ; Russia and the Slavs ; The Jews and Semites ; Eastern Europe ; Western Asia. Nowhere does he find abso- lute purity of race ; almost everywhere two, or all three, of the funda- mental races come into contact, interpenetrate, cross, or influence one another. Even in Scandinavia, where the Teutonic race is almost alone, and in Lower Italy, where the Mediterranean race is almost sole posses- sor, there is some admixture. Ripley's own opinion regarding the origin of his three race -types appears to be : that the long-headed brunet Medi- vol. v. — 22 328 Reviews of Books terranean is an African type, showing some approach to the negro ; that the Teutonic is an offshoot from the Mediterranean, locally developed amid peculiar physiographic surroundings ; that the broad-headed Alpine type is Asiatic and has moved in like a wedge between the two European populations. Even with his close adherence to his idea of three race- types, Ripley shows occasionally a tendency to go beyond them. It is not quite clear what he intends to do with his Cro-Magnon type. Some- times he almost erects it into a new race. And plainly he is often not quite sure that he has got rid of Deniker's Adriatic type. He attributes it to local environmental differences (which he does too with his own Teutonic race) but time and again he is forced to admit its reality. Of course this question of how many types are to be recognized is a funda- mental difficulty. In a criticism of Deniker's work, which appears in an appendix to his main discussion, Ripley says — " We must cast about for affinities. Here we touch as it seems to us the tap-root of Deniker's evil. The eye has been blurred by the vision of anthropometric divergences, so that it has failed to notice similarities." This is, almost to the word, Boas' s criticism of Ripley himself. On the title-page Ripley calls his book ' 'A Sociological Study. ' ' So far as we have traced it, it has been simple physical anthropology and ethnology. There follow two important chapters devoted to certain social problems. There has been a tendency of late to see in race the explanation of many social phenomena. Lapouge has been a prominent exponent of this tendency. Studies have been made to show the relation between divorce and race, suicide and race, " social stratification " and race, etc. Ripley aims to present the facts, and in so doing appears to largely reduce the importance of race as a factor. He also discusses "urban selection," to see whether the city draws more heavily upon one race than another in Europe. He also examines the " type " of the city and tries to explain how it arises. In a final chapter the author discusses acclimatization and inquires whether European races are qualified to take possession of and colonize distant possessions in other climates. Of his three types the Teutonic is least successful as a colonist, the Mediterranean is most so. The fact has vital import at this moment. That the book is interesting and highly important must be evident from this brief review of its contents. That it should contain much new material is not to be expected ; it is a re-presentation of the work of others, a combination, a harmonization. It possesses, however, features of originality and high importance. The series of maps, shaded accord- ing to a definite system, deserves high praise. No one, without actual experience, can realize the amount of care and labor such maps represent. To reduce the teachings of a multitude of measurements and observations to definite form and then to transfer the result, in graphic form, to a map, means a great amount of " dead work." The large series of type portraits, representing the types and races discussed, also demands high praise. To secure abundant illustration of types of one or two well- studied districts would have been a simple task ; to secure adequate illus- Ripley: The Races of Europe 329 tration, symmetrically distributed, of the race-types of all the peoples of Europe and western Asia was a serious labor. Dr. Ripley's series in- cludes upwards of two hundred illustrations and in many cases — the majority perhaps — he is able to present front and profile views of the same individual. While gladly able to say so much that is good of this important work, we regret Dr. Ripley's frequently obscure, contradictory, or slovenly form of statement. A very few examples will illustrate our meaning. On page 40 we read, " On the other hand the Chinese are conspicuously long-headed," on p. 45, "The Chinese manifest a tendency toward an intermediate type of head form." How can these statements agree? On p. 62, Ripley says, "There are many peoples in Europe who are darker skinned than certain tribes in Asia or the Americas ; but there is none in which blondness of hair or eyes occurs to any considerable de- gree." Surely the meaning of this is obscure. On page 122, the author is speaking of the Teutonic race. In one paragraph he says " The narrow nose seems to be a very constant trait, as much so as the tendency to tall stature, ' ' and in the very next paragraph he says, ' ' A distinctive feature of the Teutonic race which we have not yet mentioned, is its prominent and narrow nose." (Italics are ours.) These are by no means the best examples we might select ; we have taken them quite at random. If they were the only examples they would hardly deserve mention, but the work abounds in them. On p. 80, after referring to varieties of dogs and horses, our author says " these abnormities." Why "abnormities"? Why, on the same page do we have "Terra del Fuego"? These obscure passages and strange misuses of words are the less excusable as Dr. Ripley must have gone over the work several times. His matter has been given as lectures to students, as a course of Lowell Institute lectures, as magazine articles, and now in book form. We might justly expect these blemishes to have disappeared. To serious students the Supplement to The Races of Europe will be al- most, or quite as important as the work itself. It is a bibliography of nearly two thousand titles. Its volume might have been easily increased, but it is a "selected" bibliography, including only those works which contain something of original contribution. Anthropological literature is widely scattered ; it is largely in foreign languages and much of it in languages but little read by the ordinary student. The importance of a good bibliography in this field cannot be over-stated. Mr. Ripley has done his work well. The body of the bibliography is arranged by au- thors in alphabetical order. An index follows, wherein the references are given under geographical headings, in chronological order. Frederick Starr.